My Embedded Toolbox: Source Code Whitespace Cleanup

In this installment of my “Embedded Toolbox” series, I would like to share with you the free source code cleanup utility called QClean for cleaning whitespace in your source files, header files, makefiles, linker scripts, etc. You probably wonder why you might need such a utility? In fact, the common thinking is that compilers (C, C++, etc.) […]

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A Look Back at the Audi 5000 and Unintended Acceleration

I was in high school in the late 1980’s when NHTSA (pronounced “nit-suh”), Transport Canada, and others studied complaints of unintended acceleration in Audi 5000 vehicles. Looking back on the Audi issues, and in light of my own recent role as an expert investigating complaints of unintended acceleration in Toyota vehicles, there appears to be a fundamental contradiction between […]

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Lethal Software Defects: Patriot Missile Failure

During the Gulf War, twenty-eight U.S. soldiers were killed and almost one hundred others were wounded when a nearby Patriot missile defense system failed to properly track a Scud missile launched from Iraq. The cause of the failure was later found to be a programming error in the computer embedded in the Patriot’s weapons control system. On February […]

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Apple’s #gotofail SSL Security Bug was Easily Preventable

If programmers at Apple had simply followed a couple of the rules in the Embedded C Coding Standard, they could have prevented the very serious `Gotofail` SSL bug from entering the iOS and OS X operating systems. Here’s a look at the programming mistakes involved and the easy-to-follow coding standard rules that could have easily prevent the bug. In case […]

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Are We Shooting Ourselves in the Foot with Stack Overflow?

In the latest Lesson #10 of my Embedded C Programming with ARM Cortex-M Video Course I explain what stack overflow is and I show what can transpire deep inside an embedded microcontroller when the stack pointer register (SP) goes out of bounds. You can watch the YouTube video to see the details, but basically when the stack overflows, memory beyond the stack bound […]

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Cutting Through the Confusion with ARM Cortex-M Interrupt Priorities

The insanely popular ARM Cortex-M processor offers very versatile interrupt priority management, but unfortunately, the multiple priority numbering conventions used in managing the interrupt priorities are often counter-intuitive, inconsistent, and confusing, which can lead to bugs. In this post I attempt to explain the subject and cut through the confusion. The Inverse Relationship Between Priority […]

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An Update on Toyota and Unintended Acceleration

In early 2011, I wrote a couple of blog posts (here and here) as well as a later article (here) describing my initial thoughts on skimming NASA’s official report on its analysis of Toyota’s electronic throttle control system. Half a year later, I was contacted and retained by attorneys for numerous parties involved in suing Toyota for personal injuries and […]

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Building Reliable and Secure Embedded Systems

In this era of 140 characters or less, it has been well and concisely stated that, “RELIABILITY concerns ACCIDENTAL errors causing failures, whereas SECURITY concerns INTENTIONAL errors causing failures.” In this column I expand on this statement, especially as regards the design of embedded systems and their place in our network-connected and safety-concious modern world. […]

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Combining C’s volatile and const Keywords

Does it ever make sense to declare a variable in C or C++ as both volatile (i.e., “ever-changing”) and const (“read-only”)? If so, why? And how should you combine volatile and const properly? One of the most consistently popular articles on the Netrino website is about C’s volatile keyword. The volatile keyword, like const, is a type […]

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Firmware Forensics: Best Practices in Embedded Software Source Code Discovery

Software has become ubiquitous, embedded as it is into the fabric of our lives in literally billions of new (non-computer) products per year, from microwave ovens to electronic throttle controls. When products controlled by software are the subject of litigation, whether for infringement of intellectual property rights or product liability, it is imperative to analyze […]

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